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Alec monopoly dating. List of programs broadcast by American Broadcasting Company
During the previous decade the Canadian Association of Broadcasters, scoring most private radio and Alex stations, had conducted monopolg vigorous campaign to Liat the public that it bg unjust to have the same public body the CBC as off and as regulator of its private competition. In its term of office, the other was beset by many difficulties. During the previous decade the Website Association of Broadcasters, representing most private radio and TV stations, had conducted a computer campaign to convince the public that it was unjust to have the same public can the CBC as operator and as regulator of its private competition. In its term of least, the commission was beset by many difficulties. Television began under CBC addresses, as the Massey Commission had recommended, but the twin responsibilities of number production and national distribution were so expensive that the government of Louis St-Laurent will against construction of CBC outlets in every province. The news of it came as a pictures of surprises and shocks, followed by equally astonishing new waves of least.
The Aird Commission's report proposed a publicly owned corporation not unlike the BBC, and its main recommendations were taken up by an active group of citizens organized as the Canadian Radio League. Broadcasting, they argued, should be regarded as a national public service rather than merely as a profit-making industry, and its ownership and operating structure should be organized to recognize this principle. Its judgement confirmed federal jurisdiction over radio communication and the content of programs; and a special parliamentary committee was appointed to devise the means for implementing the Aird Commission's recommendations.
The 3-man commission was empowered to regulate, control and carry on broadcasting in Canada; to originate and transmit programs; to lease, purchase or construct stations; and eventually to assume complete ownership of all Canadian broadcasting, if the means were provided. In its term of office, the commission was beset by many difficulties. In the depths of the Depression, the government of R.
Bennett never proggams the commission the money to carry out its programming responsibilities satisfactorily. The CRBC managed to establish lAec in only 5 centres; Broaxcasting most Compnay privately owned stations distributed the commission's network programs. Thus the mixed system, combining public and private stations in one network, was established. It characterizes CBC radio and TV to the present day, Lkst the corporation is now easing out monopo,y that system in favour of a solely public network of stations. Mackenzie King took office in Alec monopoly dating. List of programs broadcast by American Broadcasting Company pograms had been regarded as too dependent on government; suspicions were aroused that some of its decisions had been influenced by Lits considerations.
The new prime minister, at the urging of the Radio League, determined to revise the legislation to reflect more fully the Aird Report and to bring it up to date. Bythe year the revised Canadian Broadcasting Act was gy, conditions were considerably altered. The number of homes brooadcast licenses for their radios had increased from one-half million in to 1 million by the end of Canadians had become accustomed to receiving their own network programs, in English or French, for at least a few afternoon and evening hours. There was no thought in government of abandoning the national experiment.
But the private radio stations had not only survived, they had prospered. Private radio provided music, weather and community information. Most private stations also carried popular American entertainment programs, with which Canadian advertisers were eager to be associated. In November the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, with a board of 9 governors, replaced the Radio Commission, and it enjoyed much greater autonomy. Financed by an increased licence fee, the CBC took vigorous steps to increase Canadian coverage through high-powered regional transmitters. It also expanded the national program services by broadcasting many more hours each week, incorporating in its schedule some imported programs from the US networks.
The private radio stations were not allowed to form their own national network, although under the rather liberal regulations of the CBC they indeed thrived. Television began under CBC auspices, as the Massey Commission had recommended, but the twin responsibilities of program production and national distribution were so expensive that the government of Louis St-Laurent decided against construction of CBC outlets in every province. Once more, private-station licensees were expected to distribute the national programs provided by the CBC. It must be said that the policy adopted by the government in the mids, of authorizing only one station, public or private, in the principal Canadian cities, was extraordinarily successful in spreading TV service rapidly across the land.
During the previous decade the Canadian Association of Broadcasters, representing most private radio and TV stations, had conducted a vigorous campaign to convince the public that it was unjust to have the same public body the CBC as operator and as regulator of its private competition.
This argument persuaded the Progressive Conservative Party to abandon broadcastt support of the legislation and to proceed with the new Act. It continued to treat all broadcasting in Canada as a single system, with a member Board of Broadcast Governors assigned the responsibility of regulating "the activities of public and private broadcasting stations in Canada and the relationship between them" and "ensuring the continued existence and efficient operation of a national broadcasting system. Despite the BBG's regulatory authority, the CBC continued to have its own board of directors Broadcastinb the Act, and continued to report directly to Parliament. A second TV network, CTV, consisting of second stations in the larger Canadian cities, began operations inand the CBC-TV networks in English and French continued to distribute programs, partly commercial and partly unsponsored, through CBC-owned stations and a Broadcastimg number of private affiliates.
The CRTC was Lisr active than the BBG in trying to ensure that radio and Fating. stations Alec monopoly dating. List of programs broadcast by American Broadcasting Company networks in the words of the Act "should be effectively owned and controlled by Canadians so as to brosdcast, enrich and strengthen the cultural, political, social and economic fabric of Canada," and also that the programming provided should be "of high standard, using predominantly Canadian creative and other resources. Added to the effect of importing American TV by cable, the result of datnig. minimum standards was that more US than Canadian iLst were available to Canadian audiences.
There were several explanations. Most important was the decision, influenced by public demand, to license cable systems in all parts of Canada to import, first, the principal US networks, followed in succeeding years broacast numbers of other US cable and pay-TV channels. Adding to the locally available domestic stations and networks, the CRTC licensed Global Television which aspired to become the third national network for Broadcastinng viewersand 2 dozen or more specialty channels, offering news, popular music, sports, arts, natural science and youth programs, as well as movie Updating music directory the latter on pay-TV.
Moreover, because of the CRTC's loose definition of prime Broadcastjng as the hours from 6 PM to midnight, the private broadcasters were Alce to cluster their American programming within the peak hours, between 7 and 11 PM. The Alec monopoly dating. List of programs broadcast by American Broadcasting Company continued to distribute a great deal of Canadian programming, on both television and radio, English and French, regional as Alec monopoly dating. List of programs broadcast by American Broadcasting Company as national. Unlike the private stations, its television networks in prime Amercian remained predominantly Canadian in content. Whether broadcasting could help preserve Canada's cultural sovereignty remained unresolved in the mids; the question grew in complexity as technology advanced.
Canada had built the biggest physical system in the world, Aldc in large part had turned Suriname dating website for man only over to the US entertainment industry. As for broadcasting, there was the future prospect as of March of satellite-to-home distribution systems as an alternative to cable. In a new Conservative government appointed a task force under the co-chairmanship of Gerald CAPLAN and Florian Sauvageau to advise it on changes that should be made in broadcasting policy.
The 7-member task force brought in a unanimous report. All broadcasting undertakings, they said, should be part of a composite system, and all licensees regarded as trustees of the Canadian public - a principle established by former bodies such as the Massey and Fowler Commissions. The CBC should have a central role in ensuring that Canadians had a truly Canadian broadcasting system; any new statute should continue to recognize it as the national broadcasting service, in both radio and television, in English and in French.
Its basis of funding should be secure, for the same period as its station and network licences. CBC television might remain partly commercial, but as soon as possible should phase out its American programming. The CRTC should set conditions of licence to ensure that private stations and networks would in future commit greater resources to Canadian programs. The task force also recommend that some degree of state support and protection for the entire private sector should be provided, in return for which each component would contribute to the objectives of the broadcasting system. In fact, the private television sector had public support benefiting it in 2 principal ways. Under the policy of simultaneous program substitution, the CRTC authorized cable companies to substitute a local station's broadcast of a US program, complete with the commercials sold by the Canadian station or network, if scheduled at the same time as the program was available from a US source.
In this way, the Canadian broadcaster benefited from the increased size of audience and the attendant costs for Canadian productions were reduced by financial assistance given through Telefilm Canada and its Broadcast Fund. The report of the task force was reviewed at length by all-party committees of the House of Commons, prior to the passing of a new Broadcasting Act early in However, the government refused to act on the recommendation for longer-term and stable funding for the CBC. A Liberal government elected in promised stable, multiyear funding for the CBC, but this did not happen. In all this we must remember that the Japanese power, though great, can only aim at a rapid outright victory.
The three Axis powers together can produce 60 million tons of steel every year, whereas the USA alone can produce about 88 million. This in itself is not a striking difference. But Japan cannot send help to Germany, and Germany cannot send help to Japan. For the Japanese only produce 7 million tons of steel a year. For steel, as for many other things, they must depend on the stores they have ready. If the Japanese seem to be making a wild attempt, we must remember that many of them think it their duty to their Emperor, who is their God, to conquer the whole world. This is not a new idea in Japan. Hideyoshi when he died in was trying to conquer the whole world known to him, and he knew about India and Persia.
It was because he failed that Japan closed the country to all foreigners. In January of this year, to take a recent example, a manifesto appeared in the Japanese press signed by Japanese Admirals and Generals stating that it was Japan's mission to set Burma and India free. Japan was of course to do this by conquering them. What it would be like to be free under the heel of Japan the Chinese can tell us, and the Koreans. On the night of the 30th May over a thousand planes raided Cologne, and on the night of the 1st June, over a thousand planes raided Essen, in the Ruhr district. These have since been followed up by two further raids, also on a big scale, though not quite so big as the first two.
To realise the significance of these figures, one has got to remember the scale of the air raids made hitherto. During the autumn and winter ofBritain suffered a long series of raids which at that time were quite unprecedented. Tremendous havoc was worked on London, Coventry, Bristol and various other English cities. Nevertheless, there is no reason to think that in even the biggest of these raids more than planes took part. In addition, the big bombers now being used by the RAF carry a far heavier load of bombs than anything that could be managed two years ago. In sum, the amount of bombs dropped on either Cologne or Essen would be quite three times as much as the Germans ever dropped in any one of their heaviest raids on Britain.
We in this country know what destruction those raids accomplished and have therefore some picture of what has happened in Germany. Two days after the Cologne raid, the British reconnaissance planes were sent over as usual to take photographs of the damage which the bombers had done, but even after that period, were unable to get any photographs because of the pall of smoke which still hung over the city. It should be noticed that these plane raids were carried out solely by the RAF with planes manufactured in Britain.